The Bridge Constructions Project Management Essay
Designing, Constructing and Testing of the Bridge
The bridge is a highly important structure that improves the transportation services. It is an imperative structure especially in erasing the natural obstacles that could have otherwise led to transportation challenges. The construction of the bridge is, therefore, very important especially in an attempt to improve the transportation and efficiency of service delivery. There are various types of bridges that can be used for different purposes. In this case, the beam design will be the appropriate design of the bridge as it will have multifaceted functions.
- First, it has a very strong foundation that can help it withstand huge loads carried by the large transportation vehicles. To put it simple, the bridge will help serve multifaceted services such as the creation of a railway that will be underneath the bridge and a pedestrian and bicycle’s path. As such, it will be able to improve services such as ensuring of a quick and easy attendance of the patients in case of an emergency.
- Furthermore, it will also boost the economic activities of the town as the commuters will save a lot of time that would otherwise be wasted. However, an effective plan includes much preparatory work to make the whole bridge construction process effective. In this case, there are ten different activities that will be followed to the latter to make the bridge construction process successful. For instance, it will be imperative to have an illustration of the project to act as the guiding tool. On the other hand, an A-O-N Method diagram will be used to act as the guideline for effective service delivery during the construction.
- Furthermore, calculation of the slack time will also be deemed important as the move will help reduce any chances of elongating the set period for the project’s completion.
Different Activities Deemed Important during the Bridge Construction Process
Bridge is an erection that helps span various physical obstacles with minimal interference with the set structures. The bridge reduces interference with the vast water bodies, roads and valleys, among other key aspects. As such, it is of great importance as it assists in eliminating the destructive forces associated with these structures. The materials used and the funds that are availed to be used for the construction determine the size of the bridge to be constructed. There are different types of bridge structures that should be constructed depending on the purpose. The objective of the current paper is to analyze various issues related to bridge construction. The paper will highlight the main purposes of the bridge construction and its success criteria. Furthermore, a thorough analysis of various categories of the project activities that will take place during the process of the bridge construction will be provided. Finally, a conclusion will be given based on the experience and results of investigation on the topic.
The Bridge Construction
The project aims at conducting a research on the bridge construction, which will pass through a river. As such, the construction activity will be focused on using the latest form of scientific innovation, as well as the improvement technology. For instance, one of the main agendas and ideas of the proposal is to optimize the use of construction materials that would be lighter to reduce the overall bridge’s weight (Marsh, 2011). The proposed materials should be of high quality and have a capacity to ensure huge heavy loads. Therefore, such materials must be tenacious despite them being light to mitigate any possible chances of accident occurrence due to breaking of the bridge (Van Etten, 2013). On the other hand, the time needed for the construction process will be shortened owing the use of machinery. It is scheduled to take only one year.
Furthermore, to create an effective bridge construction method, other important factors will be considered. For instance, it will be imperative to have a highly skilled team of employees that will help ensure the success of the whole process (Dumas, La Rosa, Mendling, & Reijers, 2013). There must be several engineers, geologists and computer scientists among people of other professions. Therefore, there must be a meticulous way of integrating the efforts made by a team of professionals (Fox, 2009). The group should be able to create an effective plan about how the project will become a success. They will be able to create an introductory plan especially concerning such factors as emphasizing the desired type of bridge, the details of the sites where it will be erected, and the construction resources’ requirements.
For instance, some of the factors that define the design are the purpose, the site’s condition and materials to be used. In this case, the most probable bridge design to be endorsed will be the beam type as the bridge is expected to create a good platform across a big river (Marsh, 2011). Furthermore, the beam design will also pave way for the creation of bridge reinforcement strategies such as the use of the concrete and steel as a means of creating a strong foundation (Van Etten, 2013). The bridge is intended to act as a multipurpose path where even heavy vehicles will be allowed to pass. It will also have a section of railway, which will be underneath to avert any chances of commotion. Moreover, it will also have a pedestrian pavement, thus, demonstrating the importance of thinking over all possible ways of making it a multipurpose means of transportation. The bridge will also be resistant to heavy floods and earthquakes.
As such, one of the factors that will be given more emphasis is the foundation of the bridge. There will be carried out thorough geotechnical investigations especially concerning the site where the bridge will be erected. The beam design requires stable foundation to avert any possible collapse in the future. Therefore, some of the important information will include such aspects as the soil strata and the characteristics of the bridge (Marsh, 2011). The careful consideration of the abovementioned phenomenon is highly important especially for the determination of other factors such as the aesthetic value of the bridge, its technical requirements, and the methodology concerning its construction process. Therefore, the bridge’s foundation should be of sizeable depth, thus, creating a very hard ground that cannot crumble easily after being used. The team of engineers must be very careful especially in ensuring that the bridge is not affected by the water, thus, preventing any chances of collapse.
Another important factor that will be given special attention is the equipment that will be used during the construction process. It will be imperative to use heavy equipment such as the bulldozers, asphalt mixers, excavators, fabrication equipment, and formworks (Van Etten, 2013). As such, a thorough identification as well as scrutinizing procedure must be carried out during the identification of the construction tools and equipment. For instance, it will be imperative to evaluate the capacity of such equipment to determine their efficiency. Furthermore, it will be imperative to determine what their purposes are to make sure they will help bolster an effective construction process. Therefore, the superstructure design and the foundation will be some of the top priorities among the factors that will be taken into consideration during the process of selecting the appropriate construction tools. For instance, the most expensive tools should be used more frequently and should not be left to lie idly during the entire construction process. Such actions will be of much help in the process of recovering all costs that will be incurred during the process of purchasing such tools. Furthermore, there must be carrying out of thorough scrutiny process to make sure the identified items are the most appropriate ones. Such actions will help enhance the bridge construction process.
Construct a Bridge Ready for Use
The construction of the bridge will be a very important process in many ways. First, it is intended to be a multipurpose transportation structure that will be ready for use upon its completion. It will be located near a very busy city, which is one of the main reasons of its significance. Therefore, the construction of the bridge will improve the adjacent environment making it fit in case of any need of emergency care. There are numerous hospitals where people suffering from various serious illnesses need to be attended on time. Therefore, the bridge will help reduce the time during which the ambulances reach the healthcare facilities. Secondly, it is also deemed important especially in terms of improving the public transportation convenience. It will help create an important link between the city center and the adjacent environs. Therefore, the commuters will not have to take the long root anymore, thus, helping them save time reaching the city much easier and on time. On the other hand, the bridge will be important for reducing the incidences of physical destructions (Khan, 2014). In this regard, high vehicles will not have to travel near electricity lines, thus, reducing chances of any related or potential accidents. The bridge will also be important because it will help reduce the rates of traffic jam. The completion of the bridge will improve the regulation process of the vehicles. In this regard, the commuters will have a choice of either using the long root or using the bridge. In this case, drivers that will find it not necessary to pass the town will abscond using the bridge, thus, reducing the traffic jam. In brief, there will be fewer vehicles per a given duration going to town as a result of the bridge construction.
Construction of the bridge will also be important because the majority of residents rely on vehicles for the transportation and that is how they survive. Therefore, construction of the bridge will have significant impact not only on the individuals but also almost all aspects of the city life. For instance, there would be significant improvement in the economy of the area as the bridge will help the commuters save on time, thus, reaching their workplaces earlier. Furthermore, the reduced congestion will also help to reduce the chances of accidents within the city center. In short, the construction of the bridge will be the most wise decision that the city and the urban planners will ever make.
Different Activities Deemed Important during the Bridge Construction Process
1. Creation of the Big Picture
Indeed, this is a very important step even before the actual inception or ground breaking process of the bridge construction. The construction of an effective bridge will require the creation of a big picture especially concerning the problems that it will help to solve. For instance, it will be worth reflecting on the number of vehicles that may pass through the bridge per day and the economic impact it will have on the town (Dumas et al., 2013).
2. Designing of the Bridge
The creation of an effective design for the bridge should be another important procedure especially during the inception of the project. Therefore, making early decision in regard to the design of the bridge that will be constructed will be very important especially in making the subsequent choices and decisions. In this case, the beam design will be the most appropriate as it will be able to withstand more weight compared to other designs.
3. Contracting Process
The bridge construction project will be an intensive process that will require close coordination of various technocrats such as the engineers, contractors, urban physical planners, a surveyor, and an effective management team among others. Therefore, a careful and thorough investigation of the performance records of each and every individual will be required especially in ensuring that the right team is selected (Madison, 2005). This will be an important step towards improving the overall efficiency of service delivery, thus, increasing the confidence of constructing a good bridge (Madison, 2005).
4. Preparing the Ground
The first phase of the bridge construction process will entail the ground preparation process for the real construction to start. The move will be highly important as it will help create a route that will enhance the future success of the whole project. Furthermore carrying out effective ground preparation procedures will also enhance the rest of the procedures by making sure they are also effective.
a. Cleaning the Ground
The first ground preparation procedure entails the use of the best mechanization to carry out the cleaning work. For instance, any vegetative materials, which lie on the path where the bridge will be constructed, need to be removed. Furthermore, other factors that will be considered a major obstacle during the bridge construction process also need to be removed. They may include natural particles such as loose debris; loose top soil, and other materials such as the sandy soil and hardpans. Therefore, the careful removal of such materials will guarantee a safe ground to the technical team where a strong bridge can be erected without any future worries of possible collapse. Heavy mechanization is supposed to replace the overreliance on the human labor (Dumas et al., 2013). The step will be highly imperative especially during the process of improving the efficiency of the time management procedure (Madison, 2005). Besides, the use of mechanized system will be of great importance as it will help improve the cleaning efficiency process. For instance, the use of the machines will help unearth all the materials that are considered weak unlike in the case of use of human labor.
b. Adjusting the Ground Level
The second procedure in this category is related to the ground level adjustment process. The type of the bridge that will be built will have the beam design. The beam bridges require the creation of level ground to increase its effectiveness and efficiency. Therefore, this means that the construction team will come up with adequate mechanisms that will enhance the process of leveling the ground where the actual bridge will be laid. Furthermore, the use of heavy mechanization will be required such as the use of rollers as it will help solidify the whole ground by making sure that it remains intact for the erection of a strong foundation. The use of heavy mechanization will also ensure that the time factor is effectively and properly managed. In brief, the whole project should be based on principles and factors that will enhance the time management as the whole project is intended to take maximum one year. Besides, the use of rollers will also help cut down the size of the budget in case people are to be employed to handle this task.
5. Construction of the Foundation
The construction of the foundation will be one of the most important processes that will be carried out during the whole process of the bridge construction. First, it will determine the overall effectiveness of the following procedures. Furthermore, it will also determine how solid and strong the other parts of the bridge will be upon completion. Therefore, the foundation will require the use of durable materials that will act as support and anchor for the rest of the bridge. It should be noted that a weak foundation will lead to the failure of the entire project (Van Etten, 2013). Therefore, care and diligence should be taken to ensure that optimal efficiency of the bridge is bolstered.
a. Making the Structure
The foundation structure should be made strong to create a good anchor for the rest of the project. For instance, the base should be made from durable metallic material that cannot break or bend easily even with the exertion of the optimal pressure or weight. The bridge is intended to be used by heavy vehicles too, which may create a lot of pressure upon completion of the bridge. The base of the foundation should be made from durable concrete material as it cannot expand easily even when using the optimal heat (Van Etten, 2013). As such, there will be reduced the chances of the foundation cracking, thus, increasing the durability of the bridge.
b. Buying Materials
As noted earlier, the team in charge of the bridge construction should come up with a list of the most efficient bridge construction materials. For instance, more priority should be given to purchasing durable construction materials. Nevertheless, they should be as lightweight as possible. Furthermore, they should be tenacious meaning that they should be capable of withstanding extremely heavy weights without breaking or bending (Khan, 2014). Apart from that, the management team should consider using the materials that can withstand high temperatures with very minimal expansion or contraction (Van Etten, 2013). As such, this means that there will be created a very strong and highly durable foundation. On the other hand, it is worth calculating a price relativity and comparison of different construction materials based on the aforementioned qualities to manage costs. Construction materials are one of the factors that consume a huge chunk of the budge whenever some project is conducted. Therefore, control over the price right from the beginning will be a very important step to bolster the project’s continuity and ensure its completion.
6. Constructing the Bridge
The actual process of bridge construction will be the heart of the entire project. Therefore, much caution should be taken to make the whole project successful. The engineers, as well as the physical planners will be of much help at this stage of the project’s realization. For instance, there should be closely considered such factors as tension, bending, shear and compression (Khan, 2014). A lot of care should be manifested to ensure that these forces are distributed throughout the entire bridge. The beam bridge should have horizontal beams that will act as the supporting agents. These beams should be highly durable and tenacious while at the same time they should be able to withstand high temperature variation. In short, the bridge construction phase is very important and requires thorough consultation with the group of engineers.
a. Consulting the Engineers
To increase the efficiency and accuracy of the above mentioned factors, it is important to employ and maintain continuous consultation with engineers. For instance, a team of civil engineers will play an important role especially in determining some of the natural principles as for how to create a strong and solid bridge. For instance, they will be able to determine the accurate intervals and positions of inserting the piers for the provision of support to other parts of the bridge. Furthermore, they will also be able to determine the forces that the bridge can withstand including the weight that it is expected to hold upon completion. Some of these forces include the flexural and shear forces that are experienced due to the exertion of the weight of the heavy loads that pass over the bridge. In brief, the team of engineers will understand how well such forces will help in the process of designing an effective bridge.
7. Making Security and Control System
Furthermore, creation of the security and control system will be another important procedure during the process of the bridge construction. For instance, it will be important to come up with an effective security control system that will make the rest of the bridge management process easier. Despite all processes and procedures associated with a safety and precautionary method, it is imperative to note that the bridge stands chances of crumbling. Therefore, there must be enacted adequate precautionary measures that will enhance the overall security of the bridge in case of an accident occurs. For instance, the team of engineers should ensure that it erects support stands that can avert the complete collapsing of the bridge in case of an accident. Nonetheless, this should be made on a temporary basis. Furthermore, enactment of such procedures will be very important especially in helping control the occurrence of accidents. Therefore, some of the control measures include the erection of the support beams that will ensure that the beams will remain suspended long after the collapse of the base.
8. Testing How Robust and Resistant Is the Bridge
The testing of the general effectiveness of the bridge should be another important factor that is worth considering. The management and the team of engineers should encourage the use of heavy machinery soon after the completion of the bridge to test its tenacity. Furthermore, the step will act as a precaution to the regular and potential users in case there are any signs of weaknesses. Therefore, its capacity to withstand heavy tracks will depict its strong resistance property, a property that is very important as the bridge is expected to serve over five thousand vehicles a day.
9. Public Relations Establishment
The completion of the bridge is expected to change the lifestyle and activities of the town significantly. Therefore, it will be imperative to come up with an effective public awareness campaign about the possible impact the bridge may impose (Fox, 2009). The positive impact it will have should be highlighted such as effective time management for optimal products. Furthermore, the creation of a public awareness campaign will reduce the possible conflicts with such groups of people as concerned environmentalists. The step is meant to reduce tension that the bridge may pose serious threats to the environment.
10. Promotional Campaigns and Launching
There will also be conducted promotional campaigns on the responsible use of the bridge to strengthen its durability. For instance, there will be a lot of publication and advertisement about the optimum weight that the bridge can withhold and the need to observe the set regulations. In this regard, it will be important to collaborate with the authorities to ensure their effective implementation and enforcement of the set rules and guidelines about the use of the bridge.
The Dependency between the Project Activities and Duration for Each Activity
All the project activities will be intertwined and it will be hard to move forward to the next project phase without ultimate completion of the previous one. For instance, it will be hard to turn to the actual construction without ultimate completion of the ground phase. Nonetheless, time spent on each activity will depend on the intensity and importance of the previous stage. The project is scheduled to begin in January of 2016 and end during December of the same year. Therefore, the construction of the bridge will take place in January. Contracting process will take place during February while the ground preparation will commence at the beginning of March and come to an end in the middle of April. The construction of the bridge’s foundation will take place from Mid-April towards the end of June. Soon after that, the actual construction process will commence and run for three month from July to the end of September. The creation of the control and security system will take place during the whole month of October. The testing of the bridge’s resistance will take place in November. The public relations campaigns, promotional campaigns and actual launching will take place in December, 2016.
Computation the Slack Time for the Bridge Project
Since the project is very comprehensive and is scheduled to take exactly one year, it will be highly imperative to calculate slack time to prevent any project activity. The main aim will be to start each activity as early as possible.
This involves computation on the basis of all costs involved during the time wastage in the delayed period.
The bridge construction project will be highly important especially for the improvement of service delivery in the town. There will be drastic reduction in time that is wasted while traveling using the long route. Furthermore, important cargoes will reach town on time. In brief, the project is one of the most important developmental undertakings as it will impact each and every individual’s life in a positive way.
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