From the beginning, the nursing profession has progressed in response to the human requirements. They have had a lot of references in the literature, movies, in the news and media. Such widespread image normally includes: doctor’s handmaiden, ministering angel, and erotically associated labels ranging from an inflexible prude to a sex toy. Despite the fact that these numerous misinterpreted representations thrive, compared to other cultural groups, nurses persist to stay for a certain degree unseen in the media, (McMurry, 2011). According to a Woodhull study on Nursing and the Media in 1997, Sigma Theta Tau International established that nurses were harshly under-characterized in the print media as well as in the all-inclusive health care coverage. Moreover, the study found that out of 1,153 health care narratives in 16 main newspapers only 11 contained references to nurses (Loughrey, 2008).
Nurse practitioners perform in the close setting, only viewed by individuals who require their direct assistance, that is by the patients to whom they offer their care. In the media outline they operate as an extremely realistic, but visible infrastructure that maintains the health care system from factual disruption (Loughrey, 2008). Nevertheless, their intelligence, executive under pressure, or gallant firmness to offer responsible, intricate, quality help during crisis and chaos are hardly ever praised. Overall, the existing advancement of health care transformation has provoked the focus on the initial health care as the basis of the 21st century Canadian health care system.
The potential nurses in Canada are profoundly encouraged by the Canadian Nurses Organization (CNO) to continue their education in order to obtain a Bachelor`s degree. They believe that it is the paramount degree since its earning leads to acquiring the knowledge that would help achieve better patient results. In addition to assisting patients, nurses that possess a degree are thought to make less mistakes since they obtained a higher level education (Potter, Perry, Kerr, & Wood, 2009). Furthermore, the degree offers a nurse a more vital concept of a periphery in the nursing career, which eventually saves the hospital funds as allows them to address less complex occurrences. The Nursing field certification is accessible through the CNO in the 19 practical areas. Some of those fields of specialization include community health nursing, gerontology, orthopedics, oncology, medical-surgical, cardiovascular and critical care, mental health/psychiatry, neuroscience, rehabilitation nursing. Qualification in nursing needs practice, skills and taking an exam based on the competencies of the field of nursing. Canadian nurses adhere to the great responsibility that is carefully considered to be essential in the field of healthcare (McMurry, 2011).
According to the Organization, caretaking personnel is supposed to develop and execute various plans for managing chronic illnesses, treating difficult health conditions and helping them in the conversion from the hospital to the community. Canadians also depend on nurses for health education and for development progressive approaches in it (Potter et al., 2009). Nurses evaluate the suitability of the new researches and technology for patients and amend the care plans accordingly. For many years, the palliative care field of nursing has been in a position to uphold relieving and preventing the agony of the patients as a specialized type of nursing practice and by now has irrevocably enhanced its principles. In fact, taking care at the end of life as a type of nursing has proven to be an exclusive and appreciated area of specialization. Operating within its standards, the nurses focus on enabling an individual the easiness of life, regardless the age, and on the supporting family members as well as the patients themselves (McMurry, 2011).
Palliative care nursing practice is directly connected to the more common nursing standards, which consist of the value of the right to have a life and the respect of an individual’s choice, self-esteem and reverential treatment. An access to pain relief medication as well as to other symptom management procedures reflected in the care plans are fundamental to offering a quality care and self-esteem until the end (Potter et al., 2009). Therefore, the nursing performance in the palliative approach is crucial to provide care by establishing communication that reflects individuals’ health care wishes and principles, considering the standards and health care needs of individuals and advocating the views of their families. Caretakers support and protect persons throughout their experiences of life, they offer an all-inclusive, compassionate and coordinated care to suffering individuals and their families (Walton, Chute, & Ball, 2011).
Globally, the nurses have confronted an unfavorable image in the broad social perspective. Even Australian nurses have experienced this misinterpreted distinctiveness: the public perception there has been undergoing an excess of influencing aspects since healthcare services were recognized in this nation over two centuries ago. It is due to the colonial origins, when it was perceived as an occupation appropriate only for the socially banished, but has evolved through the years of transformations. From a point of a considerable subjugation and medical subservience, there has been a struggle for public acknowledgement in terms of uniqueness, respect, as well as a role identification (McMurry, 2011).
An individual study of several reflections about nurses on the internet indicated that more than 80 percent of them portray nurses as white, middle class and habitually blond. Most of them appeared to be exercised by users between the ages of 20 to 35 years (Loughrey, 2008). Images of young nurses were, in most instances, all female and beautiful, several indicated nurses with not professionally authorized stethoscopes around their necks, present-day worn caps and a syringe in a suspended hand (Potter et al., 2009). Even the ones that depicted nurses as caring, friendly, and professional, incorporated some of these perceptible myths linked to nursing. Although there is an apparent progression towards the expression of professionalism in depicting nurses, it has a long way till these images become sensible and analogous to true caretaking practice. The uniqueness of nursing is still being formed and altered, and such course of action is completely evident under a closer look in the literature, on the internet, in the movies and other media (Walton, Chute, & Ball, 2011).
Additionally, according to a new study, even though the depictions of nurses on some TV shows are less than authentic, the media affirmatively impacts public insight of the profession. A registered nurse, Peter Buerhaus, Ph.D., predicts that the fragile economy will persuade more individuals to opt for a nursing career (Loughrey, 2008). He also denotes that the public is comprised of two views on nursing, and is in a position to distinguish between what they perceived on television and what they acquired through their own experiences. Despite the fact that some of the existing images are rather unfavorable, they appear not to be able to deprive the patients of their constructive judgement (Wood, 2008). Prior to the research, Buerhaus claimed less proof concerning the manner in which the public perceives nurses through the media, thus it derived data from the National Survey of Registered Nurses, the National Survey of the Public about Nursing of 2006, a mail study of nurses, including telephone interviews of 1,604 individuals executed in the spring of 2007 (Loughrey, 2008).
Supposedly, the individuals who watch medical TV shows like Grey’s Anatomy, Scrubs, and ER would be more inclined to choose medicine or nursing as a probable career path than those who did not watch them. The emerging stories of nurses assisting during disasters, like the Hurricane Katrina, or of narrations concerning nursing associated with patient safety imply a particularly positive impact (McMurry, 2011). All these have incredible chances to clarify the considerate picture of nurse executives and professional organizations. It has been the perception of some that the nursing concepts concerning caring for individuals are harmful, thus, should not be displayed to the public. However, Buerhaus`s survey established that nurses relate themselves to caring, as does the public, moreover, they perceive other scopes regarding nursing in the same way (Wood, 2008).
Despite the fact that the study showed the public perception of nurses as optimistic, it has not led to its popularization in the sphere of vocations: 25 percent of respondents acknowledged a nursing career, while only 2 percent chose to become nurses (Potter et al., 2009). Some of the rationale for not choosing the profession included the challenges of commitment and time management as well as educational and financial difficulties. The public also views the inadequacies in the small salary, and the great amount of output, the challenge of working conditions connected to the job (Wood, 2008).
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Unfortunately, the lack of awareness of the nurses` duties that is shared between the friends, family, patient has resulted into complicated issues and anticipation of nurses to act in a certain manner. One part of the problem is that not many have attended the hospital to observe the crucial work done by the nurses, and the distorted depiction in the media does not assist the salvation (Wood, 2008). Some say, the fault for misconceived information should be on the shows, as Hawthorne, Grey’s Anatomy, House MD, Scrubs, Nurse Jackie, and ER, including many others that depict the lives of nurses and doctors. Such series may produce a deep dramatic effect, but do not provide the correct outlook on the reality. Furthermore, whereas a number of these creative depictions prove to be entertaining or even frustrating, some might be dangerous to the nursing profession. One of the latest articles indicated that the depiction of male nurses may discourage men from choosing the career (McMurry, 2011).
There are several ways, in which the media misinterprets the caretaking, incorporated through existing and emerging lies, oversights and misses. For instance, men are represented at a disadvantage when it comes to male roles on TV shows as most of them play either families, patients, and, or doctors, which are no the most brave or strong of the professions. In addition, when a man is displayed as a nurse, they are not portrayed in the greatest light for their manhood (Wood, 2008). Therefore, men might struggle with the public view on such kinds of presenting their sexual orientation, as that is what appears to be emphasized most in the media. All in all, as the presence of nursing expert is rather doubtful in the media,the male nurses are usually represented on the edge, disregarded, or just insignificant.
It is unlikely for a TV producer to promote the demonstration of a man undertaking the tasks related to caring and nursing, as that can be detrimental to the profession. Consequently, young men tend to believe that the single way they can participate in medicine and healthcare is by being a doctor. Such biased attitude towards male nurses can disincline endowed, caring individuals from even considering the profession as an option. In such ways, the most excellent and brilliant caretakers can be never discovered, and all that is due to the fact that men are affected by the media to a great level. Nevertheless, nursing is claimed to be more than a mere assisting the doctors, as it actually is not an unidentified subordinate staff, who are not doing anything worth value. Caretakers are the ones who evaluate, console, medicate, and appraise, while the doctor only appears at the bedside on occasion. In addition, they assist and monitor the patient’s progress and attend to them the entire time, whereas the doctors are only called upon urgent situations.
Another drawback is observed when nurses are depicted as assistants, as then, those aspiring to healthcare for a career may stay away from the profession. They can be surprised by the reality when they perceive what a nurse really does. Actually, doctors do not take blood, perform Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or administer prescriptions, they are not only too occupied for these undertakings, but are not appropriately trained for. Nurses, radiology technologists, and phlebotomists are the ones responsible to complete the tasks. Doctors possess the authority in recommending them, but they are not available for any of those assignments. All things considered, such misunderstandings further the underappreciation of the nursing that trivializes the meaning and the role of the associated health employees.
Besides, the doctors have the executive power and authority, but they are not as close to the patient care as some shows display, especially the ones like Grey’s Anatomy and the House MD. In those, the public is inclined to believe that doctors are far more visible and crucial than they really are for the patient., that nurses and technicians have no value or impact on the patient`s well-being. Even Hawthorne and Nurse Jackie partially intent to portray nurses and doctors in a way that is not absolutely reliable. In detail, one nurse does not attend to a patient for a long period of time, even though one can pursue the patient, one only has to influence their lives for the required period of time. Therefore, nurses, not doctors, are concerned with constant sitting by the bedside and watching the patients for the extended time (Loughrey, 2008).
Various cultures recognize, distinguish and perform care in distinct ways, yet there exist some commonalities among them. Values, convictions, and practices for ethnically associated care are outlined by, and, in most instances, consolidated in the ideological, religious, social, economic, lingual, political, educational, and technological context of the culture. As human care is widespread, caring may be confirmed through varied terms, implications, patterns, lifestyles and actions (Loughrey, 2008). Cultural care is the widest holistic means to predict, recognize, deduce, and illustrate the right direction to guide nursing care practices. All cultures have one or another national or generic health care course of actions with distinguished professional practices. Hence, in every culture there will be differences and similarities between the generic and the professional caregivers.
In essence, the care is a distinctive, prevailing, merging and vital focus of nursing, and while curing and healing cannot be effectively devoid of care, care may exist without cure. What is more, it is necessary for the continued existence of human beings, as well as for their progress, healing, well-being, health and the strength to survive through obstacles (Wood, 2008). As an intercultural care profession and discipline, nursing encompasses an essential intention to serve people under any circumstances. Whenever the culturally based nursing care is healthy and beneficial it signifies the welfare of the patient, whether it is a community, a group, an institution, an individual, as they operate within the framework of their environments. Nursing care would be culturally fitting in situations when the patients and the patient’s patterns, terms, as well as the cultural principles are utilized in suitable and significant ways by the nurse with a single purpose (McMurry, 2011).
If the patients obtain a nursing care that is not sensibly cultural or does not result well, if it is not well-suited and considerate of the patient’s way of life, principles, and convictions, the patient will display signs of cultural conflict, stress, noncompliance, and moral or ethical concerns (Loughrey, 2008). The difficulty of the Sunrise Model as proposed by Madeleine Leininger can be observed as both a strength and a constraint. On the one hand, the strength stresses the meaning of the inclusion of anthropological and cultural perceptions in nursing education and practice. On the other hand, such intricacy can lead to misconceptions or denial.
Furthermore, Leininger developed the model to display the interrelationships of the ideas in her theory of culture that consisted of care, diversity and universality. The theory is considered prudent because the vital ideas are integrated in a way that the principle as well as its representation can be applied in several different environments (Walton, Chute, & Ball, 2011). It is extremely generalizable in that the offered ideas and relationships can be equally useful in the diverse situations. Despite the fact that it is not in simple terms, it can, without a doubt, be understood upon the initial contact.
It was acknowledged that the nurse would assist the patient to position them towards improvement of their health condition. The statement would perhaps be of an immense complexity for the nurse due to the fact that integrating new concepts in a different culture might seem as a disturbing intention.In other words, a culture is a firm set of practices progressed over generations that have infiltrated and complicated it. The entire activity of immersing yourself within a different culture is lengthy and expensive for an individual, and it also requires to fully comprehend their viewpoints and practices (Loughrey, 2008).
The television shows depict medical actions in a deformed and utterly surprising manner for a professional. Some of the procedures, medical behaviors, as well as the confidentiality rules are inaccurate, thus, by faulty information they might lead the prospective nurses to having the distorted impression of practices, and the public to the misunderstanding the whole course of actions. For example, MRIs can be terrifying for any patient, but some of the equipment that occurs on television can make the patient even more hesitant. Music, sedation, as well as comfort are all crucial elements of a scanning procedure, but the media do not display them appropriately. Additionally, if the TV shows represent medicine and nursing regardless of the correct undertaking, they educate the public about the particular impact of doctors, however, nurses are the ones who may reconstruct the real state of things, their role and repair the falsehood that the public has concerning nursing, and strengthen the profession.
To conclude, the conventional public picture of nurses could damage their self-concept while leading to more inconsistencies between the image of maintained by the public as well as that by the nurses themselves. The impaired self-image and the inadequacies between the ideal and the real work environment may lead to the job dissatisfaction, low self-esteem, as well as inapt professional performance. As a result, the conventional image of nurses is influenced by both the public and the nursing profession. What has been stated by the research to be apparent in the current years is the fact that the media can participate in influencing images concerning the situation of our health care system, the role of nurses, and the policy procedures for improving the healthcare delivery.