The paper investigates the origins and concepts of the aesthetic knowing in the scope of the art of nursing. The purpose of the study is to answer the questions about the learning objectives of the aesthetics origins. The concept concerns motivation to care in nursing. It is the understanding of the human experience, and the knowledge of healing, suffering, and treatment. Aesthetics acknowledges the significance of the art of nursing. It is the experience through the prism of action. As nurses turn into caring encounters, they gain the idea of situational factors. Aesthetics is the fundamental pattern in nursing. Introduction presents information about aesthetics and the purpose of the research paper. The body of the essay answers the questions about the learning objectives of the art of nursing, explains the concepts of aesthetics, analyzes the conceptual dimensions of the art of nursing, and discusses the essential elements of aesthetic criticism. Conclusion provides the result of the investigation on the issue. The paper shows the purposes and concerns of the aesthetic knowledge in nursing. It is the dimension of knowing that recognizes how common human experiences are expressed uniquely.
The aesthetic principle of nursing is respect for life, dignity, and rights of the patient. Aesthetical responsibilities of nurses in the process of working with the patient are represented by a certain set of actions for the unconditional implementation. For example, respect for the patient and their right to self-determination, the identification of the will of anything, the promise to do no harm, to keep the word, and to cooperate with the patient (Chinn & Kramer, 2013). A patient is a person who needs nursing care and receives it. Patients may be of different sex, age, nationality, profession, social status, and health status. However, they all deserve respect, attention, and compassion. The nurse should cooperate with the patient to find the solution to the health problems. The combination of creative knowledge of the nurse together with the maintenance of the patient is the aesthetic knowing (Chinn & Kramer, 2013). The means of transformative acts support the issue of aesthetics in nursing. The primary emphasis is placed on the development of the science of nursing. Nowadays there is a need to include the aspects of aesthetic knowledge in the general form of knowing, despite the fact that they form the empirical investigation results (Daly, Speedy & Jackson, 2014). Aesthetics is the art of nursing. It can be shared through the formal expressions of aesthetic criticism and with the help of recognized works of art (Chinn & Kramer, 2014). The artful forms of expression of aesthetics are stories, books, poetry, painting, photographs, etc. Such forms act as the inspiration for nurses, as well as for the process of endorsement their aesthetic knowledge (Daly, Speedy & Jackson, 2014). Thus, the nurses have the possibility to become skillful and experienced to provide the patient with quality support. The investigation aims at analyzing the issues of the aesthetical knowledge and proving it is the art, which is significant for the development of nursing knowledge.
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At the end of the 70s of XX century, Professor Barbara A. Carper formulated a concept that has helped expand the range of nursing knowledge (Daly, Speedy & Jackson, 2014). This philosophy shifted attention from the scientific knowledge of broader patterns of cognition. Such issues form the basis of the care provided by nurses. There are four types of knowledge: aesthetic, ethical, empirical, and personal. This fact determines that nurses depend on more than one form of knowledge.
Aesthetics concerns the knowledge of expert practice and motivation for treatment (Dunphy, Winland-Brown, Porter & Thomas, 2015). The motivation is the desire to take care of someone and give him or her possibility to cope with his illness or disability, or to fully recover and perhaps enjoy an increased level of well-being and quality of life. It also deals with understanding the human experience, dimensions of the human condition, and sophistication of illness, suffering, death, healing, pain, and disability (Dunphy et al, 2015). Aesthetics recognizes the importance of the art of nursing. This art is expressed through the prism of professional action. The process of using such methods is performed on a daily basis. Their aim is to overcome the problems of regular work. However, this art is not easy. Thus, the provision of assistance in the shower or while feeding patients is not paid an appropriate attention to. As a result, the complexity of nursing is often overlooked. Consequently, such a little help separating care from other healthcare professionals is not getting the value they deserve.
The aesthetic art of nursing according to the works of Carper is a direct experience of feeling (Daly, Speedy & Jackson, 2014). Therefore, it should not be regarded from the scientific point of view only; it is a combination of experience and knowledge of the nurse. The art of being a nurse means to apply knowledge from different research areas to provide the patient with the highest level of support when you are in a medical facility. The current understanding of knowledge and experience could change the idea of how nurses might know their patients. The art of nursing includes the valuation of human presence, showing respect for differing opinions, and connection to the client (Smith, Turkel & Wolf, 2012). Nurse actions are based on human experience, which can be obtained due to the aesthetic qualities. Its characteristics are formed as a result of a special connection between a patient and a nurse. Such issues determine the overall appearance of human nature and make people focus on the given aspect. The art of patient care extends the understanding of the world. Moreover, it causes a sense of aesthetics, which strengthens human bonds and relations.
However, the understanding of aesthetic validity is the closely related issue, which causes particular problems (Daly, Speedy & Jackson, 2014). With the development of aesthetics, the criteria of validity belong to something that is claimed to exist. The plurality of meanings gives the ground for the criticism from artists who do not consider nursing as an art. Aesthetics requires the full involvement of all the nurses’ knowledge and interpreting regarding the patient’s situation (Smith, Turkel & Wolf, 2012). While trying to encourage the ability of nurses to integrate knowledge of different models, it is necessary to develop informative, intuitive, and personal knowledge. Simulation of the situation is part of the art of nursing. Caring reflects all aspects of knowledge that provide a course of treatment and customer support.
The art of nursing does not necessarily require something commonly described as pleasant or beautiful. Within science, the understanding of art gains another meaning. Something described as pleasant in the philosophical dimension could represent death or grief. A basic concept in patient care includes the competence, commitment, conscience, and compassion. Caring involves the development of empowering relationships. Thus, the conceptual relationships in the care of patients should not be associated with the aesthetics of modern art. The art of nursing is an ethical knowledge that is significantly different from the rational (Chinn & Kramer, 2013). The human personality and sensitivity are the basement of the idea of aesthetics. Nevertheless, there is a need for aesthetic ideas representing rational viewpoint through the development of the issue.
The art of nursing indicates five concepts for the art of nursing that distinctly relate to the nurses’ ability to perform aspects of nursing practice (Chinn & Kramer, 2014). The first concept describes the ability of the nurse to provide sufficient support for the patient (Chinn & Kramer, 2014). Another concept states the ability to establish a meaningful connection with the client (Chinn & Kramer, 2014). The ability to grasp meaning in patient encounters and to determine the appropriate course of nursing are two other concepts (Chinn & Kramer, 2014). The last peculiarity of the art of nursing is the knowing on how to conduct the practice according to the morality (Chinn & Kramer, 2014).
Despite the debate over the art of nursing, certain values and characteristics reflect the fundamentals of nursing. These values include the pursuit of the realization of individual client’s needs. In nursing practice, art occupies a central place in the process of recovery. Under the tutelage of a good nurse, patients receive the convenience and gain confidence. At the same time, the nurse acquires the necessary skills for personal growth. Such art allows nurses to improve understanding and increase the level of openness to new perspectives. The concept is unique and significant in the process of effective communication between nurses and patients (Daly, Speedy, & Jackson, 2014). Thus, the ability to understand the situation and evaluate it involves the interpretation of the knowledge acquired earlier.
Envisioning and rehearsing are the activities that need the engagement of the nurses. These are two interrelated processes. Envisioning involves a typical endpoint scenario or response (Dunphy et al., 2015). Such factor focuses on the display of art forms. For nurses, the endpoints are the framework of health and well-being, such as calmness, comfort, relaxation, and the ability to navigate in all kinds of health-related situations. Rehearsing is a mental or physical representation of the skills, which involve the presence of the authority.
The useful analogy, which aims at explaining the major issues of envisioning and rehearsing in nursing, is improvisation. It is significant to understand that free improvisation is not supported by the installed rehearsal guidance system, which is capable of moving away from the intended concept and leading to failure. Successful improvisation precedes rehearsals (Daly, Speedy & Jackson, 2014). The skills form through repetitive practice. Intense and stable practice helps develop a range of skills, and these actions make the knowledge of the nurse fully embodied. When there is enough experience, there is also a possibility to rehearse particular scenarios and develop the significant skills for nurses. There are several practices for envisioning and rehearsing, such as creating storylines, repetition and engaging connoisseur-critic, and developing embodied synchronous movement.
The creating and recreating storylines help the nurses evaluate various situations and develop appropriate skills. Stories assist the development of aesthetic knowledge through acting various types of situations. Such storylines should not necessarily regard real cases or be anecdotic. They could give the possibility to improve imagination, to form skills, and to form the grounds for the future personal and professional development. Throughout history, storytelling has been used to spread information, not only in nursing, but also in all kinds of science and folklore. Telling stories and listening evaluates the connections between knowledge and practical tools.
Narratives provide the helpful ways to learn, grow professionally, and conduct research (Daly, Speedy, & Jackson, 2014). Moreover, it is a useful tool for mentors to teach new practitioners and reflect skills. Reflection is the step from theory to practice that develops working intelligence. A key recommendation in the narrative reflects the change in academic culture. Now, theoretical training is only half of the process. Practical exercises are necessary in order to become a real student of the nurse. The notion of a narrative nursing dates back to Florence Nightingale (Chinn & Kramer, 2013). His detailed writings about the conditions in the military hospitals during the Crimean War reflected in the future changes in the healthcare system (Chinn & Kramer, 2013). Narrative helps nurses better understand the patients with the help of life-cycle development and the historical world’s narrator. The narrative also reveals facets of paradigms and phenomena that shape the experience.
Reflective narrative relies on communication, but, at the same time, it supports listening and collaboration. Using the storylines creates an outstanding learning opportunity. Narrative allows the nurse to use the tacit knowledge and form the experience needed for the future work (Dunphy et al., 2015). Moreover, it helps evaluate new knowledge. The transformation of background information helps form new strategies, as well as develop critical thinking. Such tools are significant for the medical workers, as they often cooperate with people in extreme situations. The narrative includes words, intonations, and gestures. The issue of synchrony is an integral part of storytelling, as it helps develop coordination. The aesthetic knowledge is impossible without the use of narrative and synchrony of movement (Dunphy et al., 2015). Storytelling provides nurses with the prospectus, which is useful for learning and motivation changes.
The connection with the movement in the mental state of a person is significant. Moreover, it is more difficult to control body language than oral speech. The whole body of an individual plays a role in the transmission of the messages. People express their mental state through the moves of the hands, eyes, head, etc. Notable is the fact that the nurse often has to care for patients unable to use spoken language as a communication channel. As a result, non-verbal communication skills may be very useful in such cases. Movement is needed for the nurse to help provide comfort, protection, and treatment. It is necessary to indicate the intention of the motion. The focus on the movement gives it a special shape, and consistently helps transmit the values of non-verbal communication. The body language of the nurse reveals her intentions and affects the mood of the patient. The hands play a significant role in the process of non-verbal communication as they help indicate the shape of the subject, show the direction or evaluate commentaries (Dunphy et al., 2015). Hands transmit and state the feelings (Dunphy et al., 2015). For example, anxiety can manifest a continuous movement of the hands, fingers trembling, etc.
It is particularly important to comply with movements and coordinated balance of all body parts. This process includes coordination of all muscles of the body. Coordinated balance requires sequences in the movements of the body parts. Every movement has its style. This tool is individual, but it can be encouraged. Non-verbal ways, such as a touch of the hand to the shoulder, a pat on the back or a hug allows the nurse to inform a person of affection, emotional support, acceptance, and empathy (Daly, Speedy, & Jackson, 2014). Another significant issue in the movement is timing. It involved rhythm and particular moves within a certain period. The idea that “timing is everything” most certainly applies to the artistic validity of the nursing art.
Skillful nurses know how to use touch, movement, and other means of non-verbal communication, while helping the patient to overcome illness. However, it is significant to use touch and movement carefully because there are various cultures and religions where the use of touch can be unacceptable. In the art of nursing movement is an indivisible issue in providing patients’ assessment.
Narrative skills involve both verbal and non-verbal characteristics (Smith, Turkel & Wolf, 2012). In the process of narrative skills development, it is important to control how the person speaks, how the nurse develops rhythm and timing and conveys healing intention. Nurse, knowing and understanding the difficulties that the patient may experience, should be especially careful and delicate. Regardless of the communication channel used by a person, he/she must strive to reflect the message passed accurately. It contributes to the confident manner of communication. The professional ethics can also be traced between the other activities, psychological and moral factors and qualities, as well as the combination of public interest with the interests of the individual (Chinn & Kramer, 2013).
Narrative skills and evaluating require an understanding of artistic validity (Chinn & Kramer, 2013). Overall, artistic quality depends on the formation of a valid background. It means a composition of a nurse’s tone, expression, movement, body language together with perfect synchrony and timing. Artistic quality depends on the right allocations of these issues. Medical staff should keep lines of communication open, even in cases where the received message causes a feeling of unease.
Artistic quality of movement can be characterized by balance and motor movements (Chinn & Kramer, 2013). In order to provide the patient with caring and healing intentions through the right story and movement, the nurse should be synchronous. Trusting the doctor, the patient waiting for the manifestations of the highest moral character, wants to see a physician who possesses various moral qualities, especially empathy, exceptional integrity, and self-discipline. The presence of such qualities is a moral guarantee, a basis for trust and credibility. The ability to talk to the patients and to behave at the bedside of the afflicted person has been a rare innate trait. This ability is necessary to cultivate and produce in the course of daily work. Consequently, it results in self-development of a doctor. With this approach to work in the health care setting, the nurses will be able to minimize harmful effects on patients, which can be caused by the carelessly spoken words or other actions of medical workers.
During the rehearsal, the connoisseur can take part to enhance awareness of the expressing art form. The critic interprets the intention and feeling expressed by the nurse. The connoisseur also takes part in the rehearsal to evaluate imaginary situations and questions. Such actions help the students use their background knowledge and create new possibilities. The most significant part in the work of the connoisseur is to interpret the artistic validity, making the nurses see the deeds from another perspective.
Connoisseur-critic understands how to change the art form, because he/she knows its history (Smith, Turkel, & Wolf, 2012). Critic knows the current cultural context and the possibility of new directions in order to choose the right one. The main task of criticism is a line of action in the right direction and receiving a new freedom of expression (Chinn & Kramer, 2013). Critic creates a secure environment that stimulates the growth of the artist. The experienced connoisseur-critic is an outstanding teacher. Its primary role in the context of rehearsals is to ensure the protection, which takes art to a completely new level. Ideally, a critic works with the students all the time, and is familiar with the particular style of performance and features of the artist. Connoisseur creates a promising field for the development and transition of the artist to a new level of excellence (Daly, Speedy & Jackson, 2014). The criticism provides the necessary reaction and forms the main aspects of performance. Critic requires creativity during the rehearsal with emphasizing the issues nobody has noticed previously (Smith, Turkel & Wolf, 2012).
The role of the connoisseur in the aesthetic knowledge is significant. The critic provides the feedback to nurses to make them improve their performance (Smith, Turkel & Wolf, 2012). During rehearsals, the connoisseur encourages the group to take risks. Therefore, nurses could develop their skills and check their knowledge. In the narrative, the critic could show the other sides of the story, which were invisible, or tell the alternative solution of the case (Dunphy et al., 2015). Rehearsal evaluates empirical, ethical, and personal insights that emerge in nursing practice and provides the grounds for future development.
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Aesthetic criticism is a written survey that corresponds to the art of nursing. The peculiarity of this type of criticism is its written form, which allows sharing it with others. There are various types of art forms, such as visual type of photographs or sketches, literal form of novels and tales, and physical form of music and movies (Smith, Turkel, & Wolf, 2012). All these types are works of art, and aesthetic criticism highlights awareness of the aspects of artistry. It focuses on the piece of art representing the nursing experience or transforming the acts involved in the nursing practice.
Aesthetic criticism is the work provided by a connoisseur after the rehearsal, and it is a useful tool in the development of the art of nursing (Chinn & Kramer, 2013). It includes four essential elements, such as historical integration, comparative description of the art form, consideration of plausible interpretations of meaning, and translation of future possibilities. The history integration evaluates the history of the art form together with the personal biography of the artist (Dunphy et al., 2015). The connoisseur receives the possibility to discover the background and understand the progress line of the nurse. In the comparative description of the art form, the critic examines the form taken by the artist and compares it to the work of the artist (Chinn & Kramer, 2014). Using the comparisons, the critic evaluates the significance and unique aspects of the work regarding the discipline aspect.
The understanding of future possibility opens the way for inspirations as it gives the requirements for the future development of the artist. The significance of this element is that it concerns not only the nurse, but also the members of the team. The consideration of plausible interpretations of meanings explores the issues contributed to the discipline. It gives a possibility to create multiple interpretations not only by the connoisseur, but also by the group members. Aesthetic criticism provides the insight into the art form and is an essential tool for the development of the nurses.
In modern medicine, the reliability of the partner often determines the success of treatment, surgery, diagnostic or prophylactic treatments. Nurses are not only involved in the treatment, but also make it a very important part of the labor share, which is equally crucial for a surgeon or a therapist. The effectiveness of health workers is increased by properly streamlined due to the co-operative treatment of the patient. A nurse must strive to be professionally competent, independent expert, having the necessary personal characteristics, as well as strong health.
The understanding of nursing as an art is a significant issue for the development of medicine as a whole. Nowadays, health education is becoming increasingly important for providing high quality health care services. Nursing staff plays an important role in the use of modern technologies for negative outcomes prevention, as well as for health education of the population. Through trial and error, the nurse manages to find the possibilities to help the patient. Consequently, many nurses became professionals due to the accumulated experience of patient care. The narrative and rehearsal forms help nurses evaluate professional skills and prepare for any situation. Moreover, the presence of connoisseurs helps them improve their performance and evaluate the perspectives for the future development. Aesthetic criticism in the written form supports the process. The nurse assumes responsibility, acts with adequate authority, directly performs professional duties, and is responsible for the medical services offered. When the nurses consider their work to be more art than simply a duty, the success for the patient raises significantly. The mission of nursing in the community is to help individuals, families and groups develop their physical, mental, and social potential, as well as to maintain it at an appropriate level, regardless of the changing living and working conditions.