The manager must constantly make exchange of information in his/her activities. The exchange of information is embedded into all kinds of administrative activity and is a binding process of communication.
Communication is the permanent process of transmitting information to anyone. Such transmission may be explicit (speech or graphical illustrations) or indirect, for example, in non-verbal form (gestures, facial expressions, etc).
The lack of effective norms of communication in a business setting leads to the fact that the organization becomes unmanageable. Therefore, the establishment and implementation of these processes is the responsibility of the organization’s head. According to Philips (2008), the head spends up to 90% of the time for communication. Effectively working leaders are effective in communications in business. They are aware of the nature and outcome of the communication process, have the developed forms of written and oral communication in business setting. Modern leaders also have a good command of electronic communication.
This paper is about various forms of communication, the role of interpersonal communication, description of international and intercultural communication, and solutions to the present problems.
Means of communication are the ways, which allow transferring information from the subject to the object of control and back. They often include meetings, personal conversations, memos, reports on the work, phone calls, video, e-mail, Internet, and so on.
Both employees and managers are involved in communication processes of the organization. In the performance of duties, each of them can use specific techniques to overcome barriers to communication. According to Josephson (2010), each of the participants in business communication is guided by certain techniques: honesty and integrity, fairness, respect, responsibility, and others.
Honesty compels people to refrain from acts of deceit and lying. But people must bear in mind that sometimes they have to lie to those people, who take honesty as immutable standards of business conduct. Most often people resort to lies when they are trapped in a moral dilemma and have to make a choice between unsatisfying alternatives.
The basic rule of morality is that people need to tell the truth whenever possible. A fundamental requirement of this rule is that they should not deliberately deceive or attempt to deceive others and themselves. Only if people are faced with moral dilemma and have to make a choice justified by circumstances (for example, plans to alert the enemy attack in order to save human lives), or select the lesser of two evils (privacy protection through lies), only then people can lie.
Human decency is expressed in the unity of his/her beliefs and actions. Decent behavior is opposite to hypocrisy and duplicity. Decent man always fulfills his promises. For example, an employee, who promised to help a colleague in the performance of official assignment, will surely help him/her, even if it may cause a serious difficulty for him/her.
The strategy of fairness in business communication requires objectivity or lack of bias in the estimates of other people and their actions. Attending or warning to the business partner and respecting his rights refers to the respect for his personality. Respect is manifested in the fact that people listen and try to understand the point of view of their business partners, even if it is significantly different from their own.
The strategy of responsibility is manifested in the extent, to which participants of business interaction responsible for their words and perform obligations, how they abide by moral norms and obligations to each other.
The main strategies to overcome obstacles in communication have been described. It should be noted that there are only the basic techniques. In fact, they can be much more, and each employee can use his/her own personal strategy.
According to Project Institute Management (2013), like any other form of communication, intercultural and interpersonal communications have their own goals, the implementation of which leads to the effectiveness (or lack of) communication. Here an important role is played by the concept of ‘intercultural competence’ that is usually associated with the concept of communicative competence, which is defined as the level of interpersonal experience, i.e. learning to deal with others. This experiment requires an individual to operate successfully in this society within his/her abilities and social status.
By the mid-1980s in the USA cultural business the notion appeared that interpersonal competence can be learned by mastering the following knowledge gained in the process of interpersonal communication: specific, defined as information about a specific person, and general, that includes communication skills, such as tolerance, empathy, and listening.
Of the problems of interpersonal relationships in the team, there is a variety of ways out.
Solution to the problem takes place when a team is ready to consider all points of view, to understand the cause of
the conflict, and resolve it in order to come to a consensus.
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According to Kumar, Anjum, & Ghiday (2011), communication can be divided into verbal and nonverbal. There is a brief description of each of them. Verbal communication is the transfer of information by means of writing and speaking. Naturally, communications, which are undertaken by verbal means, transfer a huge amount of information. In other words, most people communicate in their natural language. No wonder, it is intended for it.
However, the modern manager must possess basic knowledge about a nonverbal kind of communication. Nonverbal communication is communication and exchange of information without words. There are gestures, facial expressions, and different signaling and sign systems. Sometimes these methods of communication are called primary and secondary languages, or natural and artificial by analogy.
Written communication is a type of verbal communication, which uses a lot of methods and rules.
First of all, communication is the means of interaction with staff. Manager creates communicative atmosphere during presentation. There are a few ways to attract attention of the audience. First of all, it is very useful to give the audience a pretty ‘slap in the face’. The manager hides this technique under the acronym PUNCH.
Reporter should grab the initiative instantly from the beginning of presentation and “throw a punch” at the listeners. It will wake them up from a passive equilibrium and make listen to everything that will be said.
The first minutes are the time when the audience is willing to listen to the speaker. He/she cannot hold this time for formal or scattering artifacts. To capture the audience, the speaker should use two or three elements from the set of PUNCH.
Specialists have developed a variety of ways to solve conflicts and provided recommendations for all the possible aspects of an individual’s behavior in situations of conflict of interests or opinions. There are the following methods of conflict resolution on the basis of possible models of conflict resolution, goals and interests of the parties.
The method of competition is used when a person, who is quite active and intends to move to the resolution of conflict situation, in the first place wants to meet his/her own interests, often to the detriment of others. Such a person is forcing others to accept his way of solving the problem.
Method of evasion is often used when the potential loss in a given conflict is much higher than the moral costs related to the ‘escape’. In this case, the escape may not always be in the physical meaning of the word. People in the leadership position often avoid taking controversial decisions, thus postponing or rescheduling an unwanted meeting or conversation for an indefinite period of time.
Method of devices is used when a person acts focusing on the behavior of other people, while not seeking to defend his/her own interests. In such a situation, he/she recognizes the dominance of the opponent and gives him/her a victory in the conflict. This pattern of behavior can be justified when the person realizes that he/she does not lose much. It is recommended to select this method from all others when seeking to maintain the relationship and peace with another person or group of people, or if the person realizes that he/she is not right.
Method of cooperation can be employed when a subject tries to resolve conflict in his/her favor, but he/she does not ignore the interests of the opponent and tries to find a way beneficial to both of them. According to Spaho (2013), among the typical circumstances, in which the method is used, there may be mentioned the following: both sides have the same opportunities and resources to resolve any problem; solution to the conflict is beneficial to both parties and no one wants to be eliminated from it; interdependencies and long-term relationship between the opponents; each of the conflicting parties is able to clearly explain their purpose, to express thoughts and come up with alternatives to resolve the situation.
Method of compromise should be employed when opponents try to find a solution that will be based on the mutual concessions. According to the CDC Unified Process Practices Guide (2006), this strategy is appropriate for conflicting parties when they want the same but at the same time believe that it is impossible to achieve this aim.
In the management practice the following basic methods are used during business negotiations: the variation method, the integration method, a method of equilibrium, and compromise method.
The variation method. In preparation for difficult negotiations (for example, if a backlash of the opposite side can be predicted in advance) it is recommended to clarify the following questions: what is the ideal solution of the problem in aggregate, regardless of the sales conditions? What aspect of ideal solutions can be waived, taking into account the problems in aggregate, the partner, and his/her possible reaction? Such considerations go beyond the purely alternative consideration of the subject of negotiations. They require the review of the whole subject of activity, creativity, and realistic estimates.
The integration method is intended to convince the partners to assess the issue of negotiations with regard to the social relationships and development needs that arise from them, as well as cooperation.
Method of equilibrium. Using this method, it is necessary to consider the following recommendations. What evidence and arguments (facts, results of calculations, statistics, figures, etc.) should be used to encourage the partner to accept the offer? It is necessary to put oneself in the partner’s shoes, i.e. to see the things through his eyes.
According to the method of compromise, the compromise can be reached when partners have an understanding between themselves as to the new realities after experiencing a failed attempt, partly because of their requirements. To get closer to the position of partner, it is necessary to anticipate possible consequences of opinion compromise solution to meet their own interests (forecast risk) and critically assess the limits of concessions.
Joint activities are impossible without communication, as well as management, since they use the existing forms of communication and create forms of communication that facilitate both joint ventures and management. At the same time effective are only those communications that have an impact on the management process.
So, in this paper a study was conducted on the topic of management communication. Based on the results, it is possible to draw the following conclusions. Communication is a form of information transmission. It has two forms: verbal and nonverbal. Intercultural and interpersonal communications have their own objectives, the implementation of which affects efficiency of management. It is important to remember about the concept of ‘intercultural competence’. Also, the PUNCH technique should be considered. The ways out of communication problems were also examined and some methods have been described. These methods are evasion, coercion, smoothing, compromise, and solution of the problem.
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