Tourism sector plays a critical role in the development of a country’s economy, which necessitates proper management to ensure that it remains sustainable. Sustainability in this sense means that it will be able to accommodate as many clients as possible while increasing the quality of services to meet the demands of diverse classes of the expected visitors (Goldstein 2007, p. 47). The number of unique scenarios and other occurrences within a country increase the chances of visitors due to which such places have a natural view. Notably, manmade and natural ecosystems act as tourist attractions, which should be properly managed to make them satisfy the needs of the present and future generation, regardless if they are tourists or local residents. The management practices of such areas must involve conservation and preservation of the ecosystem, both plants and animals.
The developing country chosen for this analysis is Turkey. The geographical nature, physical features, favourable climate, magnificent beaches, and other cultural practices of this country are some of the major things that attract a large number of visitors on annual basis; thus, it has become a city of tourists (Carlsen 2007, p. 12). Turkey is positioned in the Middle East. For many years, it has attracted many people from globe whole world. Moreover, this issue necessitates a sustainable approach to the development of the tourism sector in the country. Therefore, this essay explains the sustainable tourism development in Turkey.
Tourism operations are basically aimed at bottom line results that meet and surpass financial expectations of various stakeholders. In Turkey, the major stakeholders in the tourism sector include hoteliers, tourist transporters, tour guide firms, and the government. Hoteliers in this country would benefit from planning tourism development providing that operations, such as handling and managing customer service function, work well toward quality assurance, hence being competitive in the market (Bhargava 2012, p. 14). The hoteliers offer an assortment of services, housekeeping, guest services, facilities management, foods, marketing tour products, beverages, and front desk services (Tomas et al., 2011, p. 82). In this regards, the things that improve tourism development in the country include first class resorts and beautiful beaches, which are luxury and comfortable for the tourists.
At the specific tourism resorts, tourist transporters would also benefit from proper planning of the work schedules in order to be able to transport tourists from the hotels to various destinations and market them; they must also understand the interrelationship between guest satisfaction and finances (Sheth & Sisodia 2006, p. 6). The tour guide firms also benefit by offering guest services during the trips and in the various destinations. Considering the fact that tourism is located along the beach, it is essential that it provides some kind of safety regulations (Bertucci & Alberti 2003, p. 7). When the guests take a dip or boat ride, they are accompanied by a guide who shows them the area and ensures their safety. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism also benefit from planning by earning income from the corresponding proceeding in this sector (International Monetary Fund 2008, p. 3). Therefore, the government must ensure that there are effective policies that create conducive atmosphere for all investors in this sphere.
In Turkey, the public private partnership in this sector would work by ensuring that both the government and private players have well-structured engagements with the local community, which creates a better atmosphere for the visitors. Regarding the issue of health care, for example, some of the hoteliers have purchase a health insurance system to cover the emerged expenses of their guests. Concerning their food and beverage supply, it is needless to say that herbs production is at the highest level. The major hotels are located along the beach. Therefore, they offer tropical drinks and food that provide a healthy and adventurous approach for their guests while still maintaining high sanitary conditions and sanitation checks of their facilities. The advantages of this partnership are that there would be consistent marketing of the tour products and inflow of tourists to the destination, leading to the higher income (Dacko 2008, p. 377). The major disadvantage is that the resorts having such covers would have increased expenses, hereby reducing their net profit (Rafiq 2010, p. 732).
The effective approach to the study would be the use of both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The reason is that the approaches provide statistical inferences and explanations respectively (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia 2001, p. 12). In terms of the arrangement, the public sector must involve the private players in making major decisions when developing tourism policies. This is important because the input of private players is practical since they cooperate with the tourists and know the specific problems in this sector.
The important steps of tourism development planning process include the following.
The process of planning the tourism activities must be interactive among different stakeholders. For example, in cases of contracts or supplier handling, the tourism players have set measures through strategic planning that allow for cost containment and profitability. The planning processes in the tourism sector involve various suppliers for the various needs of the tourism. Therefore, the stakeholders have established human resource development system. Consequently, they have expanded their operations to IT level ensuring that they produce fiscal and account information for all their transactions with suppliers for the sake of transparency and accountability. This process must be also interactive to improve reliability.
Considering the issue of different impacts, the tourism sector improves the economic environment by creating employment opportunities such as those offering transportation and tour guides (Zubair, Bowen & Elwin 2009, p. 226). It also increases investment opportunities in the hotel and accommodation sector as well as in the areas that employ a number of people. The other impact is on the development of infrastructure in the country such as roads, railway system, and air transport. Regarding the social aspects, tourism enhances integration between the local community and the visitors, thus promoting mutual understanding (Zubair, Bowen & Elwin 2009, p. 227). This could also lead to cultural exchanges among these different groups, hence being able to learn from one another. Concerning environmental aspects, tourism improves the physical landscape and ecosystem through conservation of nature; it also leads to the environmental planning, making it appealing to the local residents and visitors (Zubair, Bowen & Elwin 2009, p. 228).
Concerning tourism development, sustainability means ensuring that the sector is improved to reduce the nature of destruction as well as satisfy the needs of tourists and country residence in the present situation and future (Jones & Phillips 2011, p. 4). In order to ensure that the tourism development is sustainable in Turkey, the management structure of tourist activities is diverse, and each person plays a significant activity that would enhance the satisfaction of each client. Some of the activities that may be undertaken by the different staff members include SPA treatments, massages, pedicures, and manicures. In addition, the guests are encouraged to release their anger by stamping on grape fruits to produce wine that is fermented over time and served to the guest when they are leaving. It is a favourite activity among the guests and there is always someone drawing the crowds.
There are also special programs that include couple therapy, organisational motivational talks, marketing, maternity camps, boot camps and youth service stations where the youth are taught on various aspects of life in a serene environment (Shareef & McAleer 2005, P. 28). There are motor boat rides and candle lit dinners along the beach or even on the yacht. From this list it is evident that the introduction and marketing of sustainable tourism development in Turkey is important because it requires a particular way of organisation in teams of management to manage these activities (Morner, Tooley & Possnert 2003, p. 180). A guide involved in these activities is required to ensure smooth performance. All these guides are then expected to report to the task manager, who then consequently informs the assistant managers and finally the manager. This hierarchy achieves a certain sense of efficiency and, therefore, success for the tourism.
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Sustainability in tourism is ensuring that the heritages are preserved for a long time and able to meet the needs of various visitors. The procedures to be implemented in dealing with the incidents should be sustainable and in compliance with the marketing guidelines of governmental bodies as well as trade associations operating in the tour and hotel industry (Chekitan 2005, p. 17). The sustainable procedures necessitate the involvement of the hotel’s board of management. For example, the board in charge decided to hire a quality systems manager who understands sustainable aspects of this sector necessary to take the tourism to the next level. According to the job description of this manager, he was required to establish an effective and sustainable quality system that would prove beneficial to the tourism in all aspects, especially financially. In other words, this manager must involve sustainable policies and procedures to implement organisational activities that are geared to basically ‘clean up the organisations’ shelves in order to provide possibility for further improvement (Blaxill & Eckardt 2009, p. 79).
In the tourism development, as well as in other sectors of the economy, there is always conflict of interests. This occurs when there is lack of coordination or harmony among the different segments of stakeholders in the tourism sector (Riley 2012, p. 11). For example, the hoteliers might want to implement a policy that intends to increase their profits based on the attestation, yet such policy might affect the rights of the citizens (Van Alphen, Kunz & Hekkert 2007, p. 1961). In such cases, the government may refuse to grant the hoteliers the permission to implement the policy, hence resulting in tension between them. However, when everyone were involved, the output would be high due to the minimal conflict. Production levels in terms of guest bookings and reservations could be raised if conflicts are eliminated.
Changing financial relationships and limiting personal opinion among others are the sources of conflict. They could be identified using contest validation. In this context, the minimal aspects causing conflict are dealt with before it degenerates into a major problem in the corresponding sector. Finally, evaluation and disqualification of issues also help in identifying the potential conflicts in advance.
In order to solve the conflict of interests and ensure the wellbeing of Turkish tourism development, the following methods are used. First, the use of consultation is paramount. Consultation means that the conflicting parties meet to discuss with one another the problems and compare them with other similar situations in different countries. The input of an expert is necessary during consultation to ensure that the parties involved reach a workable compromise. The second method is mediation. Under this method, the conflicting parties meet at a table with a third party or mediator, who must be neutral. The mediator would help the parties reach a compromise. The third method is the application of law. The local laws must protect each party and ensure that none takes advantage of the other. For example, the fact that tourism activities are located along the beach and borders water encourages the management to keep the waters clean as stipulated in the laws of the country. Therefore, if there is conflict between the hoteliers and the local residents, the law is applied equally. The entity can resolve the problem by encouraging the guests to use the bins around the area and not to litter in the waters (Blyton & Fiorito 2008, p. 102). These measures contribute in one way or another to the guests’ satisfaction, market penetration and, ultimately, revenue growth.
In Turkey, the implications of balancing supply and demand in this sector include the following. First, there will be need for branding the major tourist destinations. The gross income in the tourism would double due to the penetrated industry and great reception for the high quality of their service and, consequently, consumer satisfaction (Goldstein & Lee 2005, p. 216). In an in-depth analysis of the issue, if the salespersons in the tourism sector quit their work, the confidence that they had instilled in the customers is eroded. Furthermore, it could result in the low sales, thereby eroding the gains in this sector. The truth is that after quitting, they stop marketing the tourism products, lose communications and contacts with the clients, who in turn may search for other places where they could get the comfort and the pacific environment (Sorger 2013, p. 18).
The term Enclave Tourism means the congregation and planning of tourism in a small geographical area (Gmelch 2009, 34). This is effective in terms of implementing effective quality systems, such as those pertaining to the voice of customer. The systems give power to the consumers to express their opinion about the tourism service, complementary or otherwise within the given region (Morri, Aliani & Bianchi 2005, p. 261). It also gives freedoms to the customers to complain and to take legal action against the tourism players in the concerned area, for offences that have been committed against them. Another example is where the quality systems procedures and responsibilities of various individuals within the tourism are outlined. Therefore, if there is a fault with a certain area in management then the individual who is not fulfilling his task properly can be addressed directly (Boselie 2010, p. 11).
The moral and ethical issues of developing and improving enclave tourism are that they promote honesty and integrity in solving specific problems faced in a given geographical location. For example, while managing conflicts or even legal woes against the tourism sector in a given area in Turkey, the ethical and moral concerns as well as the quality systems come in handy both as a defence for the plaintiff, an agreement that was breached, and for the defendant if no breach of contract happened in that particular location (Blyton 2004 p. 46). As stated above, various aspects of ethical and moral systems are pertinent to the individual contribution in the organisation during their implementation within the area. Therefore, if the tourism finds loopholes in accounts and its accounting systems, the personnel in charge of accounts in that area are questioned, referring to the individual who actually conducted the recorded audits. This is a simply example of how tourisms apply quality, moral and ethical procedures in Turkey based on the aspects of Enclave Tourism.
Even though tourism is developing well in Turkey, there are a number of contemporary issues associated with it such as building of super infrastructure, tourism promotion activities, and tremendous increase in the number of visitors (Kuvan 2010, p. 24). There is also the issue of increased deforestation to provide possibility for the expansion of hotels and adoption of policies to protect the nature (Kuvan 2010, p. 66).
Some of the recommendations for quality improvement include introducing incentives to the workers such as increasing salaries and allowances of the employees, treating them with dignity and respect. This would help in eliminating increased cases of employees’ resignation and boost the occupancy rate of the hotel facilities. Furthermore, relocating the hotel to a different part of the town with high potential was also viewed as a better recommendation for avoiding the congestion of the central location.
In addition, this essay recommended the hotel management to reduce their prices in order to attract more clients and the existing ones, thus competing favourably and outdo the emerging competitors. The research also recommended that the hotel should improve the drainage system along the road leading to and within the business premise in order to reduce the impacts of flood.
Some of the incidents that affect the tourism environment include legal confrontations, customer dissatisfaction, and internal conflicts. The other major issues, which were encountered, include the low rate of occupancy, which is standing at approximately forty percent, especially during the periods of low season. Secondly, the problem of location is also a much pronounced because it is competitive in nature. Thirdly, the emerging competitors in this central location within the growing cities must be examined. Fourth, the current problem of floods in the country has made it difficult for the corporate clients to hold their meetings at the hotel. It is postulated that the occupancy rate has been reduced to stand at around thirty percent, resulting from the impacts of floods. It became clear that the clients in this industry need a hospitable environment where they feel safe and enjoy the comfort. The relationship that the salespersons in the tour sector cultivated with their clients created the hospitable environment within the hotel that attracted the visitors repeatedly.
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